Ventilation of Chemical Industry
Principles of ventilation in the chemical industry
Harmful chemical industry creates special conditions that must be considered as the design of the entire enterprise, as well as the design of ventilation.
Necessary to place the chemical industry only on the leeward side of the enterprises with less hazards and housing estates. You should not have businesses in the basins. The most harmful production shops located on the leeward side (the prevailing winds of the cold period) relative to the less damaging shops and office buildings.
Production facilities of chemical plants, as a rule, should be designed bungalows with a device serving the areas within the building. For individual industries are allowed and multistory buildings, in particular in the presence of a vertical process. Buildings recommended consolidated with the blocking of several productions in one case. In such a case, the block is usually posted n barns, warehouses, workshops, laboratories, etc.
Ventilation chamber in one-story industrial buildings (except the central chamber, serving all of his enterprise IPT) should be placed using the free space on the platforms, mezzanines, in mezhdufermennom space, etc., but given their convenient operation. Indoor camera, preferably inlet, in the basement. Supply plant, usually located at the outer walls with air intake through the holes in these walls. Fence supply air over the roof of shops with harmful substances is eliminated.
In all cases where this is possible under the terms of the process, should be placed technological, energy and sanitation facilities and technical equipment outside of buildings, with the device if necessary, the local buildings. An example of equipment location outside of the buildings are the rotary kiln. In their application, for example, in cement production in the buildings are only the "head" oven, rotating the same drums outside the building.
Building chemical plants in which there is considerable heat and gas release, such as furnace room shall be designed in accordance with their aeration. In addition to window openings may hold special aeration openings designed for the warm season.
Aeration and skylights should not be blown, roof insulation.
The area of opening doorways for entering the supply air for aeration must be at least 30% of glass area for hazards with the allowable concentration of 5 mg/m3. With more toxic hazard area opening openings shall be not less than 50% of the total area of glazing.
From health point of view it is extremely important to design of chemical equipment with built in her local suction. Any unpressurized reactor lid must be fitted with ventilation pipe for joining the local suction. Underestimation of this rule leads to the need for device ventilyatsionnnyh fittings for installation of equipment, which is clearly irrational. When designing the process equipment should be taken into account the need to seal the processes of loading and unloading of vehicles of toxic substances. Just have to seal the processes rastarivannya bulk materials, packaging and evaporating dusty materials, etc.
The chemical industry often run continuously. In many cases, the presence of excessive heat can not provide for Duty heating. In the same premises where the heating is necessary, it is arranged mainly combined with ventilation. Less commonly used forced-air heating unit heaters.